Essays on Control: Perspectives in the Theory and its Applications

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Abstract : The aim of this paper is to compare and contrast the theories of motivation and how they are used to inspire employees to develop the drive to achieve. The importance of motivation in organizations and job satisfaction is vital for the achievement of organizational goals and objectives. The consequences of organizations operating without any purpose of motivation towards its employees are far catastrophic, such as depression, turnover, burnout which can derail the success of organizations. For organizations to make employees their biggest asset and retention purposes, motivation should be a priority.

The study tries to help organizations with suggestions to cultivate conducive atmospheres and relationships for employees to work under, to foster positive attitudes towards their work. A qualitative approach and theory based application were considered for this study. In all enterprises whether private or state owned, motivation plays a key role in driving employees towards achieving their goals, organizational goals and to a certain extent the dreams of their nations.

There are many theories of motivation, and they mostly give a relation or influence the outcomes of employee job satisfaction. Contemporary theories of motivation incorporate equity, control and agency theory, as well as goal setting, reinforcement, and job design theory. The theories of motivation maybe categorized according to their definitions and purpose but critical analysis reveal that they are all linked, they lead to serving satisfaction in employees.

The use of both content and process theories must be put into practice to motivate employees effectively. If hygiene factors factors outside the job itself, such as working conditions, salary and incentive pay are inadequate, employees become dissatisfied. Rewards as the main factor of motivation can also encourage retention within the organization, and the broader employment relationship and social exchange are significant. According to David and Anderzej , motivation can be understood as cognitive decision making in which the intension is to make the behavior that is aimed at achieving a certain goal through initiation and monitoring.

At work places, reviews are done using appraisals and appraisals at work have predetermined standards, and their outcome may provoke an emotional reaction in the employee, and this reaction will determine how satisfied or dissatisfied an employee is. Good marks in reviews may reflect that an employee is satisfied and bad marks may reflect the opposite.

In every employee, motivation maybe because outside factors extrinsic such as rewards or within an individual intrinsic , desire to do better. For us to help understand underpinnings to motivation, we must first explore what job satisfaction means because motivated employees will have a job satisfaction. According to Kumar and Singh , p. Regardless of the actual circumstances and situation, job satisfaction is an emotional response that cannot be seen, only inferred.

Jehanzeb, Rasheed, Rasheed and Aamir , p. Organisations must be seen to support employees in their daily work in order to bring about loyalty and improve retention by removing elements that may create dissatisfaction, while bearing in mind that in a heterogeneous environment, with male and female employees from different age groups, generations, and to a certain extent backgrounds, and with varying qualifications or experience, no single element will produce either universal approbation or collective disapproval.

Based on the basic physical, biological, social and psychological needs of human beings, Maslow came up with a five-stage theory that places the needs of the individual in different categories and prioritizes their attainment. Teachers, like all people, have needs that have to be satisfied. Besides the basic needs for food, shelter and clothing, safety from physical, harm, and social interaction, they also need the recognition and appreciation of students, colleagues, and parents.

What is POSTCOLONIALISM? What does POSTCOLONIALISM mean? POSTOCOLONIALISM meaning

At the other end of the spectrum, Herzberg identified institutional politics, the management approach, supervision, pay, relationships at work and working conditions as factors that may demoralize employees. Employees should be promoted after completing certain stages of their career and should receive recognition for special achievements — for example, when they produce exceptional results in their subject areas; on a more basic level, they should also be given responsibility to determine how to handle tasks that relate to their jobs.

The Two-factor theory has however drawn its share of criticism. Golshan et al.

Perspectives in Control - Theory and Applications | Dorothee Normand-Cyrot | Springer

Another criticism leveled against it is that it makes assumptions that every individual will react in the same way in the similar situation. Theory Y assumptions take the opposite view: the mental and physical inputs expended at the workplace are equated and par with those rest or play. External factors or any threats from outside may not be the sole influence for exerting effort.

Workers or people can exercise caution and discipline to have objectives achieved, but the hunger in their desire to commit to objectives is dependent on how big are the rewards as assigned to that kind of achievement. Under normal circumstances, people can adapt to seek responsibility and not only accept it Saif et al.

Applying these assumptions to a school environment, one could argue that two of the main causes of dissatisfaction among teachers are having to deal with problem students and a strict and inconsiderate management, for example a principal who is coercive and does not appreciate the efforts of teachers, or an overly directive principal who never delegates or allows teachers to make independent decisions.

This theory is readily applicable to academic environments and explains why some teachers are high achievers, despite the difficulties they face: they set themselves high goals and achieving these goals is what drives them. The equity theory postulates that employees will weigh their input into a job against the output they receive from it — the more the rewards, the greater their satisfaction.

This resonates with Naveed et al. Regarding this theory, employees who perceive that they receive more output from their jobs than what they put into them will experience job satisfaction. Certain aspects of the job itself also shape how an employee perceives it. Tasks that are clarified bring a better job satisfaction since a clear role breeds a work force that is happy, committed and shows much involvement in work that is done. Authors identified five major job characteristics that impact on the psychological state of an employee and influence their motivation and job satisfaction, as well as their levels of absenteeism, namely the variety of skills involved in a task, the identity and significance of the task, autonomy, and feedback.

Employees compare their input-outcome ratio with that of other employees and if they perceive it to be fair, employees will experience satisfaction Robbins, If employees perceive an inequity in their input-outcome ratio compared to other employees, they become dissatisfied and less motivated.

The potential problem with this theory is that there is a possibility of a relationship between what people desire and what they consider important. These concepts can be separable theoretically but practically hard to differentiate. The idea is to derive satisfaction and minimize dissatisfaction in employees. Individual factors such as personality and skills determine performance Wagner and Hollenburg, The higher the effort in work relates to the higher the performance. This is a comprehensive and more complete theory of motivation which is inclusive of diverse aspects.

This model can give details of the fiber relation that exists between job performance and attitudes which perfectly defines managers. The model also touches on the assumptions of human behavior. The deductions of the model assume that individual behavior is influenced by both internal and external factors, rational and make own choices about their behavior, have different goals, desires and needs.

Finally, individuals decide between alternative behaviors Wagner and Hollenburg, Employees who lack motivation in the work places are a risk factor when it comes to executing day to day operations of the business.

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Some employees are engaged in company equipment and tools on a daily basis, some of which need maximum attention and safety when using. So it is the responsibility of the organization to have a well-balanced workforce of employees and their emotions as far as work issues are concerned.

Regarding this definition, non-attendance such as vacation leave, military service, block release leave and suspension do not qualify as absenteeism and should be completely excluded from the ensuing absenteeism analysis process. Levy , p.

20 Questions

It is the desire of organization to keep their staff for longer periods of time. Mathew said that constructivist teaching and constructivist learning are Oxymoronic terms meaning that they are two terms which goes together but they are controversial to each other. In constructivist teaching the teacher is required to enact agendas from outside the classroom that is it has to be of societal imperative but intended to enrich the curriculum at classroom level.

Bell describes four forms of constructivist relationship between teacher and student these are;.

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Power of: This is also a traditional approach of instruction where the teacher ignores learning opportunities in the course of teaching but students are told to take note of them to be explored post learning process. Power for: This is a democratic approach of teaching where the learner is freer to explore physical environment so as to solve some problems and create new knowledge. Power with: This is a democratic approach of teaching where learners have high opportunity in the course of learning.

It was contended that, constructivist teaching scheme has five phases which are:. The theory has far-reaching consequences for cognitive development and learning as well as for the practice of teaching in schools.


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Professional development should consider the important of using learners experience in teaching and learning process. By experiencing the successful completion of challenging tasks, learners gain confidence and motivation to embark on more complex challenges Vygotsky call it as zone of proximal development ZPD Vygotsky, Teachers should encourage and accept student autonomy and initiative. They should try to use raw data and primary sources, in addition to manipulative, interactive, and physical materials. So that students are put in situations that might challenge their previous conceptions and that will create contradictions that will encourage discussion among them.

In our teaching therefore we need to use some activities which originate from our environment so that learning can be meaningful to students.

enter site So that students can construct their own meaning when learning Hawkins Ashcraft, contends that, information processing is a cognitive process which attempts to explain how the mind functions in the learning process. With this theory more emphasis is on how the information is processed than, how learning happens.

The theory has three basic components which are;. This is a stage, where the learner receives the information through senses and stores it in a short tem memory. At this point the information stays for only a fraction of a second; this is because this region is continuously bombarded by information which tends to replace the first information Shunk, The information registered at SR is then shunted to the short term memory, where its storage at this region is facilitated by process called chunking and rehearsal.


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